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Table 2 Adipose-derived stem cells studies conducted under various mechanical loading

From: Mechanoresponsive musculoskeletal tissue differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells

Mechanical loading modality Targeted tissue Mechanical loading parameters (modality, strain and frequency, and duration) Cell origin Effect References
Uniaxial stretch Osteoblasts Uniaxial 2D four-point stretch 0.24 % strain applied for 2 h for 5–10 days Human Osteogenic gene profile ↑
Mineral deposition ↑
[145]
Uniaxial 2D four-point stretch 0.2 % strain with 1 Hz frequency for either 17 min/day for 10 days or 6 h for 1 day Rat BMP-2 and RUNX2 (after 6 h loading) ↑ [146]
Uniaxial 3D stretch 10 % strain with 1 Hz frequency 4 h/day for 14 days Human Paladin gene expression ↑ [147]
Uniaxial 2D four-point stretch 0.2 % strain with 0.5 Hz frequency 2 h/day for 7 days Human Osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity were increased up to day 5 but were decreased at day 7 [144]
Uniaxial 2D flexcell tension system 10 % strain with continuous 1 Hz or rest-inserted (1 Hz with 10 s between cycles) frequency 4 h/day for 14 days. Human Calcium deposition ↑ both loading groups [148]
Uniaxial 2D clamp stretch 5 % strain with 1 Hz frequency 15, 60, and 120 min single and triplicate applications Human Osteogenic gene expression ↑ all strain regimes except single 15 min [149]
Uniaxial 3D clamp stretch 10 % strain with 1 Hz frequency 4 h Human Calcium deposition ↑
Osteogenic gene profile ↑
[150]
Fluid flow Pulsatile 2D fluid shear 0.6 Pa mean shear 0.3 Pa pulse amplitude 8.4 Pa/s peak shear applied at 5 Hz frequency for 1 h Human NO production ↑
Osteogenic gene expression ↑
[143]
Uniaxial stretch Tenocytes Uniaxial 3D stretch 4 % strain with 2 h stretch followed by 6 h rest cyclically applied for 21 days Equine Tenogenic morphology ↑
Tenogenic gene expression ↑
[160]
Uniaxial stretch Myocytes Uniaxial 2D flexcell system 11 % strain with 0.5 Hz 1 h/day for 19 days Human Myogenic gene expression ↑, multinucleation ↑, myotubes ↑ [153]
Uniaxial 2D stretch across post 10 % strain with 1 Hz frequency for 7 days (continuous) Human Cell alignment ↑ [113]
Uniaxial 2D stretch across pistons 15 % strain with 0.5 Hz frequency for 48 h Human Fusion with myoblasts ↑
Cell alignment ↑
[154]
Uniaxial 2D stretch 10 % strain with 1 Hz frequency for 24 h Rat Myogenic gene profile ↑ [155]
Uniaxial 2D flexcell stretch 12 % strain with 1 Hz frequency for 48 h Human No significant positive effects [152]
Uniaxial 2D stretch 5 % strain with 1 Hz frequency for 14 days Human Smooth muscle differentiation markers ↑ [156]
Biaxial and uniaxial stretch Equiaxial 2D stretch over post 10 % strain with 1 Hz frequency for 24 h Rabbit Myogenic gene GATA4 expression ↑ [151]
Compression Chondrocytes Cyclic 3D platen compression 5 % strain with 1 Hz frequency 4 h/day for 7 days Rabbit Calcium signaling pathways ↑ proliferation ↑
Aggrecan production ↑, collagen production ↑
[98]
Cyclic 3D hydrostatic compression 10 MPa pressure applied with 1 Hz frequency 4 h/day 5 days/ week, 5 weeks Porcine Glycosaminoglycan content ↑ [158]
Cyclic 3D hydrostatic compression 0.4 or 5 MPa pressure applied with 0.5 Hz frequency for 4 h/day, 5 day/week for 4 weeks Human Glycosaminoglycan content (both groups) ↑
Collagen II, aggrecan, and sox-9 gene expression (both groups) ↑
[90]
Cyclic 3D hydrostatic compression 7.5 MPa applied with 1 Hz frequency 4 h/day for 7–21 days Human Chondrogenic gene profile day 7 ↑
Gene expression and viability at days 14 and 21 ↓
[159]