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Table 1 In vivo mechanical strain and stress in major musculoskeletal tissues

From: Mechanoresponsive musculoskeletal tissue differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells

Tissue type In vivo mechanical loading In vivo strain or stress magnitudes Ref
Bone Fluid shear stress 0.8–3.0 N/m2 [165, 166]
Tensile strain 0.03–0.1 % (though close to10 % is widely accepted to account for in vivo amplification) [165]
Tendon Tensile strain 2–4 % (physiological range) [57]
Tensile strain 5–16 % (complete rupture for mid-tendon) [66]
Skeletal muscle Tensile stress 9 kN (vigorous exercise) [75]
Tensile strain 5-12 % (moderate activity)  
Cartilage Compressive stress 1–6 MPa (vigorous activity) [81]
Compressive strain 50 % (at superficial zone) [62]
Compressive Strain 0–5 % (at deep and middle zone) [63]