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Table 1 Mechanical properties used in middle ear components for FEM

From: Analysis of the mechano-acoustic influence of the tympanic cavity in the auditory system

Component Density
(kg/m3)
Young’s modulus
(N/m2)
Poisson’s ratio
Eardrum
 Pars tensa 1.2 × 103a 3.2 × 107i 0.3d
 Pars flaccida 1.2 × 103a 1 × 107c 0.3d
 Malleus 1.9 × 103b 1.41 × 1010e 0.3d
 Incus 1.9 × 103b 1.41 × 1010e 0.3d
 Stapes 1.9 × 103b 1.41 × 1010e 0.3d
 Tympanic annulus 1.2 × 103(supposed) 6 × 105d 0.3d
 Manubrium 1.0 × 103c 4.7 × 109c 0.3d
 Tensor tympanic tendon 2.5 × 103c 2.6 × 106c 0.3d
 Lateral mallear ligament 2.5 × 103c 6.7 × 104d 0.3d
 Anterior mallear ligament 2.5 × 103c 2.1 × 106d 0.3d
 Superior mallear ligament 2.5 × 103c 4.9 × 104d 0.3d
 Incudal ligament 2.5 × 103c 6.5 × 105h 0.3d
 Stapedial tendon 2.5 × 103c 5.2 × 105c 0.3d
 Stapedial annular ligament 2.5 × 103c 2 × 105f 0.3d
 Incudomallear joint 3.2 × 103d 1.41 × 1010d 0.3d
 Incudostapedial joint 1.2 × 103d 6 × 105g 0.3d
  1. aWilliamns and Lesser [33]
  2. bWeistenhöfer and Hudde [17]
  3. cKoike et al. [1]
  4. dSun et al. [34]
  5. eSpeirs et al. [35]
  6. fGan et al. [5]
  7. gPrendergast et al. [36]
  8. hGan et al. [6]
  9. iWada and Kobayashi [37]