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Fig. 1 | BioMedical Engineering OnLine

Fig. 1

From: Evaluation of a newly developed piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet system for liver resection in a surviving swine animal model

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet system. The system consists of a handpiece, a supply pump, and a controller. The supply pump continuously feeds physiological saline into the chamber through a capillary inlet. To drive the piston, a voltage is applied from the controller to the piezo actuator at a specific frequency. The pulsed water jet is ejected at a frequency-based pulse rate. SP supply pump, PS physiological saline

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