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Table 3 Gain and time constant estimates for individual steps at the two intensity levels \(v_1\)-moderate (\(k_1\) and \(\tau _1\)) and \(v_2\)-vigorous (\(k_2\) and \(\tau _2\))

From: Identification of heart rate dynamics during moderate-to-vigorous treadmill exercise

  Step number
1 2 3 4
\(k_1\) [bpm/(m/s)] 33.3 ± 14.0 24.9 ± 11.2 28.6 ± 11.6 23.9 ± 11.6
\(k_2\) [bpm/(m/s)] 32.7 ± 6.9 24.0 ± 7.9 26.1 ± 6.4 21.7 ± 8.8
\(\tau _1\) (s) 61.6 ± 43.7 48.1 ± 37.0 55.0 ± 30.8 46.4 ± 30.4
\(\tau _2\) (s) 56.9 ± 24.0 60.7 ± 34.1 56.5 ± 21.5 62.6 ± 45.4
  1. The values are shown graphically in Fig. 4
  2. \(n =23\)
  3. Steps 1 and 3: up; steps 2 and 4: down
  4. Values for k and \(\tau\) are: mean \(\pm\) standard deviation