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Table 2 Estimation of the overall performance of the use of ECG as biometric

From: Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis

References IR (%) AEER IRW AW WIR (%) WA (%)
Agrafioti and Hatzinakos [85] 100.00 na 0.010 na 0.61 na
Agrafioti and Hatzinakos [83] 96.20 0.87 0.020 0.10 2.35 0.08
Biel et al. [1] 98.00 na 0.010 na 0.86 na
Boumbarov et al. [120] 86.11 na 0.000 na 0.34 na
Chan et al. [48] 89.00 na 0.020 na 1.94 na
Chan et al. [49] 100.00 na 0.030 na 2.62 na
Chen et al. [90] 91.20 na 0.010 na 0.76 na
Fang and Chan [28] 95.00 na 0.040 na 4.15 na
Fatemian and Hatzinakos [64] 99.63 na 0.010 na 1.17 na
Israel et al. [14] 100.00 na 0.010 na 1.27 na
Khalil and Sufi [35] na na na na na na
Kim et al. [45] Na na na na na na
Kyoso and Uchiyama [4] 94.20 na 0.000 na 0.37 na
Loong et al. [93] 100.00 na 0.010 na 0.66 na
Lourenco et al. [65] 94.30 10.10 0.010 0.03 0.66 0.28
Odinaka et al. [54] 99.00 0.37 0.012 0.46 11.63 0.17
Pathoumvanh et al. [132] 97.00 na 0.000 na 0.42 na
Pereira et al. [112] 99.00 0.70 0.030 0.13 3.33 0.09
Safie et al. [70] 93.60 na 0.050 na 4.58 na
Shen and Tompkins [26] 95.30 na 0.070 na 6.99 na
Silva et al. [113] na na na na na  
Singh [77] 82.00 0.10 0.030 0.13 2.61 0.01
Singh and Gupta [76] 99.00 na 0.020 na 2.16 na
Sriram et al. [114] 97.00 15.00 0.010 0.03 0.72 0.44
Tawfik and Kamal [78] 99.08 na 0.010 na 0.95 na
Wan and Yao [59] 100.00 na 0.020 na 1.66 na
Wang et al. [87] 100.00 na 0.010 na 1.14 na
Wubbeler et al. [31] 99.00 0.03 0.030 0.13 3.20 0.00
Yao and Wan [47] 91.48 na 0.010 na 0.80 na
Zhang and Wei [27] 97.40 na 0.220 na 21.35 na
Zhao et al. [94] 95.00 na 0.180 na 16.93 na
Total      96.22 1.16
  1. IR identification rate, AEER equal error rate for authentication scenarios, IRW IR weights, AW AEER weights, WIR weighted IR, WA weighted AEEE, na indicates that information is not not available or not computable.