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Table 1 Subjects' baseline characteristics and pupillometry parameters

From: Using dynamic pupillometry as a simple screening tool to detect autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a pilot study

Parameters Healthy Volunteers Diabetes p values
   Without CAN With CAN p 1 p 2 p 3
Number of subjects 16 16
(9 Type 1, 7 Type 2)
8
(3 Type 1, 5 Type 2)
- - -
Gender (M/F) 9/7 15/1 7/1 - - -
Age (years) 44 ± 13 50 ± 11 51 ± 5 ns ns ns
Duration of diabetes (years) - 20 ± 10 22 ± 10 - - ns
HbA1c (%) - 8.3 ± 1.1 9.4 ± 2.2 - - ns
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 13 141 ± 20 147 ± 16 * * ns
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 ± 6 77 ± 9 87 ± 10 ns * ns
Ratio P/I in darkness 0.55 ± 0.056 0.42 ± 0.045 0.35 ± 0.077 $ $ *
Latency to constriction (s) 0.20 ± 0.078 0.26 ± 0.070 0.29 ± 0.100 ns * ns
Ratio P/I at largest constriction 0.40 ± 0.050 0.30 ± 0.031 0.26 ± 0.065 $ $ ns
Latency to largest constriction (s) 0.90 ± 0.147 1.01 ± 0.192 0.91 ± 0.089 ns ns ns
Reflex amplitude (pixels) 9.62 ± 1.99 7.40 ± 1.90 5.35 ± 2.14 # # ns
Ratio P/I of plateau 0.50 ± 0.055 0.37 ± 0.046 0.32 ± 0.068 $ $ ns
Latency to plateau (s) 1.88 ± 0.539 1.95 ± 0.744 1.49 ± 0.331 ns ns ns
Duration of constriction (s) 1.63 ± 0.559 1.69 ± 0.75 1.19 ± 0.318 ns ns ns
Velocity of constriction (pixels/s) 14.57 ± 5.32 10.28 ± 3.49 7.87 ± 3.48 * # ns
  1. [mean ± standard deviation] for the single flash experiment. p 1 - Comparison between healthy volunteers and diabetic subjects without CAN. p 2 - Comparison between healthy volunteers and diabetic subjects with CAN. p 3 - Comparison between diabetic subjects without and with CAN. ns - not significant, * - p < 0.05, # - p < 0.01, and $ - p < 0.001.