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Table 1 Sequence of operators applied to EMG signal.

From: Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

Filtering with a 6th order Butterworth Bandpass filter (10 Hz–500 Hz). emg filt (k) = filter (emg raw (k))
Normalization with respect to MVC e m g n o r m ( k ) = e m g f i l t ( k ) M V C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaqcLbuacqWGLbqzcqWGTbqBcqWGNbWzjuaGdaWgaaWcbaqcLboacqWGUbGBcqWGVbWBcqWGYbGCcqWGTbqBaSqabaWexLMBbXgBcf2CPn2qVrwzqf2zLnharyavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5gaiqaajugqbiaa=HcaiqGacaGFRbGaa8xkaiabg2da9KqbaoaalaaabaacbiGae0xzauMae0xBa0Mae03zaC2aaSbaaeaacqqFMbGzcqqFPbqAcqqFSbaBcqqF0baDaeqaaiaa=HcacaGFRbGaa8xkaaqaaiaa+1eacaGFwbGaa43qaaaaaaa@5847@
Full-wave rectification emg rect (k) = abs (emg norm (k))
Background noise removing
Symmetric Dead Zone
BNT = Background Noise Threshold
emg(k) = DeadZone(emg norm (k)) = if abs (emg norm (k)) ≥ BNT; emg(k) = emg norm (k) otherwise emg(k) = 0