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Table 1 Bench-top testing. Bench-top testing comparison for ease of use and performance between commercial and proposed chamber designs.

From: Open access to novel dual flow chamber technology for in vitro cell mechanotransduction, toxicity and pharamacokinetic studies

Chamber type Oligene FCS Bioptechs FCS2 Warner RC-30 ProFlow™
Ease of Use • Straightforward assembly
• Retaining ring difficult to position
• Persistent leakage
• Difficult to envision in use in sterile environment
• Good for optical imaging
• Convenient connection to syringe pump
• Difficult assembly
• Stage adaptor fit both Zeiss and Leica scopes with ease
• Many parts, "over engineered"
• Tubing easily connected to syringe pump
• Bottom coverslip extremely fragile
• Difficult assembly
• Polymer gasket difficult to manage
• Chamber fits together well
• Difficult to seal chamber → leakage
• Tubing poorly sized and too stiff
• Relatively easy to assemble
• Vacuum grease needed to seal well but grease is never in contact with cells
• Ease of use diminishes under sterile conditions
Performance • Issues with sealing
• 0.25–2 ml/min flow without leaking
• Leakage at higher flow rates
• Leakage between inlet and chamber body
• Major leakage unless extra spacer used
• Needed much silicon grease to insure sealing, but then no leakage up to >36 ml/min
• Numerous & persistent air bubbles and pockets formed inside chamber
• Major leakage problems
• Max flow ~1–12 ml/min
• No sealing possible without grease, contrary to instruction manual
• Significant bubble formation
• No leakage problems once cover slip sizing issue addressed
• Flow rates up to 60 ml/min
Major Strength Straightforward assembly Stage adaptor increases flexibility Chamber fits together well No leakage, No bubbles
Major Weakness Leakage, no heating apparatus included Leakage, bubbles Leakage, bubbles No heating apparatus included