Novel flow chamber design. Flow geometry is dictated by the rubber gasket(s), where two polycarbonate cases are used to deliver flow as well as to compress and seal the fluid space. Nylatron thumb screws are used to tighten the chamber, and circular glass coverslips are used to seal flow and provide microscope visualization. Flow is administered through inlet and outlet tubing connected to the barbed inlets/outlets, placed orthogonal to the chamber surface for ease of use with the microscope stage. Left: fabricated flow chamber in use for endothelial studies. A mouse embryonic stem cell line E14Tg2a is pre-differentiated on cover-slips coated with 0.1% gelatin, and then exposed to shear stress of 1.5 – 5 dyn/cm2 to induce endothelial differentiation. Typical experiments are carried out for 1–2 days (courtesy of Professor Horst von Recum). Right: technical drawings of design in dual and single mode.