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Table 3 The bio-implanted inductive coupling links used for wireless power transmission

From: Energy harvesting for the implantable biomedical devices: issues and challenges

Coil shape Tx-Coil (mm) Rx-Coil (mm) Carrier frequency (MHz) Distance (mm) Modulation technique Application References
Circular - (5 × 8 × 2) 4 5 Downlink-ASK Uplink-LSK Neural recording system [84] 1998
Circular 50 20 4 28 - EEG signal detection [57] 2005
Tx-solenoid Rx-Cylinder din = 410 10 × 13 1 205 - endoscopy [72] 2006
L = 300
Spiral pancake dout = 52 dout = 10 6.78 10 ASK brine [67] 2007
din = 10 din = 5
Tx-spiral coil Rx-rectangular dout = 44 4 × 8 13.56 40 LSK Subcutaneous tissue [85] 2009
Square (2 × 2) cm2 (2 × 2) mm2 915 15 _   [86] 2009
Spiral rectangular 62 × 25 25 × 10 13.56 10 ASK Implanted micro-system [87] 2011
Spiral square 70 × 8 20 × 8 1-5 10 ASK   [88] 2012
Circular dout = 38 dout = 18 742 KHz 10 _ Neural recording system [89] 2012
din = 36 din = 16
Spiral circular dout = 56 dout = 11.6 13.56 22 ASK Nerves and muscles stimulator [91] 2014
din = 10 din = 5