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Table 1 A rigorous optimization over all parameters of the a wave detection algorithm: frequency band, W 1 , W 2 , and the offset β

From: Detection of a and b waves in the acceleration photoplethysmogram

Iterations Frequency band W 1 W 2 Offset (%) SE (%) +P (%) Overall accuracy (%)
1 0.5–15 Hz 35 200 0 99.72 100.00 99.86
2 0.5–11 Hz 25 200 0 99.92 99.78 99.85
3 1–15 Hz 35 200 0 99.68 100.00 99.84
4 0.5–13 Hz 35 200 0 99.67 100.00 99.84
5 0.5–14 Hz 20 220 0 100.00 99.64 99.82
6 1–14 Hz 35 200 0 99.64 100.00 99.82
7 0.5–14 Hz 20 200 0 99.92 99.71 99.82
8 0.5–14 Hz 20 210 0 99.92 99.71 99.82
9 0.5–13 Hz 25 200 0 99.84 99.78 99.81
10 1–14 Hz 25 200 0 99.84 99.78 99.81
11 1–14 Hz 25 210 0 99.84 99.78 99.81
12 0.5–13 Hz 20 200 0 99.92 99.66 99.79
13 1–15 Hz 30 200 0 99.75 99.82 99.79
14 0.5–15 Hz 30 200 0 99.68 99.89 99.78
15 1–9 Hz 35 200 0 99.55 100.00 99.78
16 0.5–12 Hz 25 220 0 100.00 99.55 99.78
17 0.5–14 Hz 35 200 0 99.54 100.00 99.77
18 1–15 Hz 30 250 0 99.75 99.79 99.77
19 0.5–15 Hz 25 200 0 99.92 99.61 99.76
20 0.5–12 Hz 25 200 0 99.84 99.68 99.76
. . . . . . .  
. . . . . . .  
. . . . . . .  
5606 0.5–8 Hz 40 230 10 90.22 99.88 95.05
5607 0.5–7 Hz 40 230 9 89.80 99.88 94.84
5608 0.5–7 Hz 40 240 9 89.96 99.68 94.82
5609 0.5–7 Hz 40 230 10 89.21 99.88 94.55
5610 0.5–7 Hz 40 240 10 89.38 99.68 94.53
  1. All possible combinations of parameters (5,610 iterations) have been investigated and sorted in descending order according to their overall accuracy. The data used in this training phase were PPG measured after 1 hour of exercise, with 885 heartbeats. The overall accuracy is the average value of SE and +P.