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Table 1 In-vitro measured head rotation angles with XOT, LS and HHC

From: Characterization of the head-to-trunk orientation with handheld optical 3D apparatus based on the fringe projection technique

Position XOT LS HHC
mean ± std [°] mean ± std [°] mean ± std [°]
Reference φ 0.00 ± 0.12 0.01 ± 0.06 2.75 ± 0.98
θ 0.00 ± 0.12 0.00 ± 0.05 −1.01 ± 0.56
   ψ 0.00 ± 0.13 0.00 ± 0.14 0.52 ± 0.37
Natural φ −8.23 ± 0.11 −8.47 ± 0.05 −5.47 ± 1.09
θ −26.68 ± 0.12 −26.63 ± 0.06 −26.14 ± 0.82
   ψ 1.31 ± 0.13 1.62 ± 0.13 1.45 ± 1.24
Rotation left φ 1.03 ± 0.11 1.37 ± 0.14 1.60 ± 1.92
θ −50.82 ± 0.12 −49.79 ± 0.12 −50.43 ± 1.90
  ψ 7.12 ± 0.12 6.91 ± 0.18 7.91 ± 1.92
right φ −2.02 ± 0.11 −3.31 ± 0.16 −1.69 ± 1.31
θ 40.00 ± 0.11 41.25 ± 0.07 39.88 ± 0.43
   ψ −0.53 ± 0.13 0.66 ± 0.21 −0.07 ± 0.69
Lateral tilting left φ 3.13 ± 0.11 0.87 ± 0.09 4.06 ± 0.58
θ −1.19 ± 0.11 −0.99 ± 0.06 −3.16 ± 0.33
  ψ 35.55 ± 0.14 37.81 ± 0.11 39.81 ± 0.85
right φ −0.04 ± 0.11 −0.02 ± 0.11 2.11 ± 1.05
θ 1.93 ± 0.11 2.13 ± 0.10 4.60 ± 1.06
   ψ −33.65 ± 0.12 −35.14 ± 0.14 −34.53 ± 0.88
flexion/extension flexion φ 27.87 ± 0.11 27.85 ± 0.06 27.10 ± 0.53
θ −0.73 ± 0.10 1.07 ± 0.06 0.04 ± 0.39
  ψ 4.08 ± 0.14 5.59 ± 0.16 6.33 ± 0.36
extension φ −31.58 ± 0.13 −31.36 ± 0.09 −29.56 ± 1.01
θ −7.09 ± 0.12 −7.88 ± 0.06 −6.41 ± 0.69
   ψ −3.7 ± 0.16 −2.02 ± 0.14 −2.69 ± 0.54