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Table 2 Key observations during simulation of pathological states

From: Closed-loop real-time simulation model of hemodynamics and oxygen transport in the cardiovascular system

Case HR SAP LAP LVEF LVSV LVSW LVEDV LVESP
  min-1 mmHg mmHg % ml mmHg·ml ml mmHg
Normal physiology 72 112/61(79) 4.8 67 71 6735 107 94
Systolic heart failure 72 84/51(62) 8.1 39 52 3499 133 77
Diastolic heart failure 72 90/53(66) 9.2 69 66 4194 83 72
Aortic stenosis 72 89/55(68) 7.1 46 58 9117 126 181
Aortic regurgitation 72 110/42(65) 7.1 76 101 8842 133 83
  1. HR heart rate, SAP systemic arterial pressure, LAP left atrial pressure, LVSV left ventricular stroke volume, LVSW left ventricular stroke work, LVEDV left ventricular end diastolic volume, LVESP left ventricular end systolic pressure.