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Table 1 Results from a simulation of a healthy man (age 30 years, weight 70 kg, 170 cm) compared to published normal values[13, 25]

From: Closed-loop real-time simulation model of hemodynamics and oxygen transport in the cardiovascular system

Global

Unit

Normal values

Simulated normal case

Heart rate

min-1

69 ± 17

72

Cardiac output

l · min-1

6.3 ± 2.4

5.09

Stroke volume

ml

89 ± 30

71.6

Systolic arterial pressure

mmHg

112/74 (87)

112/61 (79)

Pulmonary arterial pressure

mmHg

22/9 (14)

24/8 (11)

Myocardial volume

ml

374 ± 110

380

Maximum total heart volume

ml

762 ± 133

737

Total blood volume

ml

5105 ± 578

5600

Systemic arterial volume

%

11.4

7.0

Systemic capillary volume

%

5.4

4.4

Systemic venous volume

%

70.0

71.9

Pulmonary blood volume

%

8.1

10.7

Pulmonary capillary volume

%

2.5

2.2

Systemic arterial O2 saturation

%

96.4 ± 0.5

96.2

Mixed venous O2 saturation

%

70 ± 5

68.3

Coronary sinus O2 saturation

%

32 ± 8

28.6

Left ventricle

   

Ejection fraction

%

59 ± 4

67

Stroke work

mmHg·ml

5600 ± 1000

6735

End-systolic elastance

mmHg·ml-1

3.51 ± 1.26

2.43

Preload recruitable stroke work

mmHg

123 ± 36

88.8

dp/dtmax

mmHg·s-1

1840 ± 327

2359

dp/dtmin

mmHg·s-1

−1864 ± 390

−2666

Tau

ms

33 ± 8

18

End-diastolic volume

ml

123 ± 28

106.8

LA volume min --- max

ml

29.9 --- 76.7

55 --- 81

LAP

mmHg

8.3 ± 2.5

4.8

LV Tei

---

0.39 ± 0.05

0.41

LV Ees/Ea

---

1.62 ± 0.80

1.78

Right ventricle

   

RV EF

%

61.0 ± 5.8

68

RVSW

mmHg·ml

1980

1706

RV Ees

mmHg·ml-1

0.66

0.51

RV dpdtmax

mmHg·s-1

422 ± 46

538

RV dpdtmin

mmHg·s-1

−355 ± 45

−289

RV Tau

ms

---

33

RV EDV

ml

111 ± 22

105.6

RA volume min --- max

ml

---

49 --- 78

RAP

mmHg

4.8 ± 2.4

3.7

RV Tei

---

0.28 ± 0.05

0.13

RV Ees/Ea

---

---

1.14

  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation when available.