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Table 1 Results from a simulation of a healthy man (age 30 years, weight 70 kg, 170 cm) compared to published normal values[13, 25]

From: Closed-loop real-time simulation model of hemodynamics and oxygen transport in the cardiovascular system

Global Unit Normal values Simulated normal case
Heart rate min-1 69 ± 17 72
Cardiac output l · min-1 6.3 ± 2.4 5.09
Stroke volume ml 89 ± 30 71.6
Systolic arterial pressure mmHg 112/74 (87) 112/61 (79)
Pulmonary arterial pressure mmHg 22/9 (14) 24/8 (11)
Myocardial volume ml 374 ± 110 380
Maximum total heart volume ml 762 ± 133 737
Total blood volume ml 5105 ± 578 5600
Systemic arterial volume % 11.4 7.0
Systemic capillary volume % 5.4 4.4
Systemic venous volume % 70.0 71.9
Pulmonary blood volume % 8.1 10.7
Pulmonary capillary volume % 2.5 2.2
Systemic arterial O2 saturation % 96.4 ± 0.5 96.2
Mixed venous O2 saturation % 70 ± 5 68.3
Coronary sinus O2 saturation % 32 ± 8 28.6
Left ventricle    
Ejection fraction % 59 ± 4 67
Stroke work mmHg·ml 5600 ± 1000 6735
End-systolic elastance mmHg·ml-1 3.51 ± 1.26 2.43
Preload recruitable stroke work mmHg 123 ± 36 88.8
dp/dtmax mmHg·s-1 1840 ± 327 2359
dp/dtmin mmHg·s-1 −1864 ± 390 −2666
Tau ms 33 ± 8 18
End-diastolic volume ml 123 ± 28 106.8
LA volume min --- max ml 29.9 --- 76.7 55 --- 81
LAP mmHg 8.3 ± 2.5 4.8
LV Tei --- 0.39 ± 0.05 0.41
LV Ees/Ea --- 1.62 ± 0.80 1.78
Right ventricle    
RV EF % 61.0 ± 5.8 68
RVSW mmHg·ml 1980 1706
RV Ees mmHg·ml-1 0.66 0.51
RV dpdtmax mmHg·s-1 422 ± 46 538
RV dpdtmin mmHg·s-1 −355 ± 45 −289
RV Tau ms --- 33
RV EDV ml 111 ± 22 105.6
RA volume min --- max ml --- 49 --- 78
RAP mmHg 4.8 ± 2.4 3.7
RV Tei --- 0.28 ± 0.05 0.13
RV Ees/Ea --- --- 1.14
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation when available.