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Table 3 Comparison of the clustering results for the Khan dataset

From: Clustering gene expression data using a diffraction‐inspired framework

Algorithm AEC AVI ACC (%)
Diffractive clustering 53.3 98.4 70.0
k‐means 49.1 105.7 63.0
Fuzzy c‐means 50.9 113.7 65.1
Hierarchical clustering (single) 40.7 79.8 43.2
Hierarchical clustering (centroid) 51.0 106.3 57.8
Self‐organising map 46.3 15.7 54.2
Gaussian Mixture Model 51.8 102.2 50.6
DBSCAN 46.8 100.7 55.4
  1. The diffractive clustering algorithm outperforms the other clustering algorithms in terms of accuracy, with the fuzzy c‐means algorithm performing well in terms of the validity index.